Is Blood Type Associated With Mortality After Trauma? A North American Experience
*Lauren Kwasny, Robert Sawery, *Meredith Adams
WMU H.S. School of Medicine, Kalamazoo, MI
OBJECTIVE(S): Takayama reported increased risk of death in blood type O patients in a Japanese trauma population. Existing literature demonstrates different ABO blood types may impact the physiologic response of an individual to disease, which could have treatment implications. This study investigates any difference in mortality associated with ABO blood types in a North American trauma population. We hypothesized that blood type O would be associated with higher mortality.
METHODS: We reviewed outcomes from all patients with ABO blood typing admitted between 2012 and 2017 to a level I and a level II trauma center in the same city. Isolated orthopedic injuries were excluded. Demographic data included age, sex, race, blood type, blunt vs penetrating trauma, injury severity score, vital signs, and Glasgow Coma Score. Data were analyzed using Student's t-test for continuous variables and chi square analysis for proportions. Logistic regression was used to determine independent associations with 28-day mortality and complications.
RESULTS: There were 5,249 participants. The mean age was 50.3 +/- 0.3 years, 62% were male, 85% Caucasian, and 11% Black. Mean Injury Severity Score was 11.9 +/- 0.1 and 92.8% suffered blunt injury. 45% had blood type O, 40% type A, 11% type B, and 3.8% type AB. Apart from higher percentage of blood type B patients being black (21%), there were no significant differences in demographics or complications between blood types by univariate analysis. Results of the multivariate analysis for mortality, controlling for variables chosen a priori, are in the Table below. Blood type was not associated with mortality or complications (data not shown).
CONCLUSIONS: Unlike previous reports from an Asian population, we found no association between blood type and mortality in our North American patients. Greater genetic heterogeneity in our population may explain these differences.
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